ShoreTel, Inc.
ShoreTel Inc (Form: 10-Q, Received: 02/09/2016 14:53:00)

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 

Form 10-Q


(Mark one)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended December 31, 2015
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from              to

Commission File Number 001-33506
 

 
SHORETEL, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 

 
Delaware
 
77-0443568
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
     
960 Stewart Drive, Sunnyvale, California
 
94085-3913
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
 
(408) 331-3300
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒    No   ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ☒    No   ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer  ☐
Accelerated filer  ☒
   
Non-accelerated filer  ☐  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ☐   No   ☒
 
As of January 22, 2016, 66,687,899 shares of the registrant’s common stock were outstanding.
 


SHORETEL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
FORM 10-Q for the Quarter Ended December 31, 2015
 
INDEX

 
Page
PART I: Financial Information
   
Item 1
3
 
3
 
4
 
5
 
6
 
7
Item 2
19
Item 3
30
Item 4
30
   
PART II: Other Information
   
Item 1
31
Item 1A
31
Item 2
31
Item 3
31
Item 4
31
Item 5
31
Item 6
31
 
32
 
33
 
2

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEM 1: FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

SHORETEL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

   
December 31,
2015
   
June 30,
2015
 
ASSETS
       
Current assets:
       
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
96,905
   
$
82,162
 
Short-term investments
   
10,020
     
8,025
 
Accounts receivable, net of allowances of $638 and $631 as of December 31, 2015 and June 30, 2015, respectively
   
28,793
     
36,494
 
Inventories
   
14,387
     
15,053
 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
   
13,198
     
14,315
 
Total current assets
   
163,303
     
156,049
 
Property and equipment, net
   
19,049
     
20,419
 
Goodwill
   
127,960
     
122,750
 
Intangible assets, net
   
19,573
     
22,217
 
Other assets
   
5,238
     
5,021
 
Total assets
 
$
335,123
   
$
326,456
 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
               
Current liabilities:
               
Accounts payable
 
$
13,346
   
$
16,452
 
Accrued liabilities and other
   
17,553
     
19,374
 
Accrued employee compensation
   
17,041
     
15,311
 
Accrued taxes and surcharges
   
4,294
     
9,902
 
Deferred revenue
   
52,461
     
50,616
 
Total current liabilities
   
104,695
     
111,655
 
                 
Long-term deferred revenue
   
20,865
     
20,659
 
Other long-term liabilities
   
4,600
     
4,014
 
Total liabilities
   
130,160
     
136,328
 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 13)
               
Stockholders' equity:
               
Preferred stock, par value $.001 per share, authorized 5,000 shares; no shares issued and outstanding
   
-
     
-
 
Common stock and additional paid-in capital, par value $.001 per share, authorized 500,000; issued and outstanding, 66,603 and 65,055 shares as of December 31, 2015 and June 30, 2015, respectively
   
371,892
     
361,691
 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
   
(21
)
   
4
 
Accumulated deficit
   
(166,908
)
   
(171,567
)
Total stockholders’ equity
   
204,963
     
190,128
 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
335,123
   
$
326,456
 

See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
 
SHORETEL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

   
Three Months Ended
December 31,
   
Six Months Ended
December 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
   
2015
   
2014
 
Revenue:
               
Product
 
$
41,048
   
$
46,913
   
$
82,581
   
$
94,620
 
Hosted and related services
   
30,484
     
25,503
     
59,886
     
50,115
 
Support and services
   
18,899
     
18,191
     
37,989
     
36,024
 
Total revenue
   
90,431
     
90,607
     
180,456
     
180,759
 
Cost of revenue:
                               
Product
   
13,692
     
15,613
     
27,173
     
32,392
 
Hosted and related services
   
14,119
     
15,423
     
27,946
     
30,751
 
Support and services
   
4,735
     
4,301
     
9,440
     
8,582
 
Total cost of revenue
   
32,546
     
35,337
     
64,559
     
71,725
 
Gross profit
   
57,885
     
55,270
     
115,897
     
109,034
 
Operating expenses:
                               
Research and development
   
13,793
     
13,272
     
27,630
     
26,933
 
Sales and marketing
   
30,272
     
29,301
     
61,115
     
58,317
 
General and administrative
   
9,703
     
10,562
     
19,818
     
20,553
 
Settlements and defense fees
   
-
     
8,422
     
-
     
8,422
 
Acquisition-related costs
   
534
     
-
     
534
     
-
 
Total operating expenses
   
54,302
     
61,557
     
109,097
     
114,225
 
Income (loss) from operations
   
3,583
     
(6,287
)
   
6,800
     
(5,191
)
Other income (expense):
                               
Interest expense
   
(115
)
   
(107
)
   
(238
)
   
(260
)
Interest income and other (expense), net
   
(560
)
   
(343
)
   
(1,137
)
   
(556
)
Total other expense
   
(675
)
   
(450
)
   
(1,375
)
   
(816
)
Income (loss) before provision for income taxes
   
2,908
     
(6,737
)
   
5,425
     
(6,007
)
Provision for income taxes
   
363
     
125
     
766
     
503
 
Net income (loss)
 
$
2,545
   
$
(6,862
)
 
$
4,659
   
$
(6,510
)
Net income (loss) per share - basic
 
$
0.04
   
$
(0.11
)
 
$
0.07
   
$
(0.10
)
Net income (loss) per share - diluted
 
$
0.04
   
$
(0.11
)
 
$
0.07
   
$
(0.10
)
Shares used in computing net income (loss) per share - basic
   
66,184
     
63,728
     
65,725
     
63,348
 
Shares used in computing net income (loss) per share - diluted
   
68,074
     
63,728
     
67,471
     
63,348
 

See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
 
SHORETEL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)

   
Three Months Ended
December 31,
   
Six Months Ended
December 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
   
2015
   
2014
 
Net income (loss)
 
$
2,545
   
$
(6,862
)
 
$
4,659
   
$
(6,510
)
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax:
                               
Unrealized loss on short-term investments
   
(20
)
   
(1
)
   
(25
)
   
(8
)
Other comprehensive loss
   
(20
)
   
(1
)
   
(25
)
   
(8
)
                                 
Comprehensive income (loss)
 
$
2,525
   
$
(6,863
)
 
$
4,634
   
$
(6,518
)

See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
 
SHORETEL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)

   
Six Months Ended
December 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
 
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
       
Net income (loss)
 
$
4,659
   
$
(6,510
)
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by operating activities:
               
Depreciation and amortization
   
9,769
     
9,663
 
Stock-based compensation expense
   
4,932
     
4,585
 
Amortization of premium on investments
   
70
     
49
 
Loss on disposal of property and equipment
   
-
     
12
 
Provision for doubtful accounts receivable
   
102
     
25
 
Impairment of indemnification asset
   
-
     
3,584
 
Fair value of escrow settlement modification
   
-
     
611
 
Changes in assets and liabilities, net of the effect of acquisitions:
               
Accounts receivable
   
7,815
     
2,306
 
Inventories
   
1,010
     
7,309
 
Indemnification asset
   
-
     
(53
)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
   
1,548
     
(3,627
)
Other assets
   
(76
)
   
140
 
Accounts payable
   
(2,175
)
   
(2,952
)
Accrued liabilities and other
   
(1,844
)
   
6,426
 
Accrued employee compensation
   
1,217
     
(1,086
)
Accrued taxes and surcharges
   
(5,608
)
   
(2,071
)
Deferred revenue
   
1,791
     
4,474
 
Net cash provided by operating activities
   
23,210
     
22,885
 
                 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITES:
               
Purchases of property and equipment
   
(5,736
)
   
(5,503
)
Purchases of investments
   
(7,776
)
   
(7,896
)
Proceeds from sales/maturities of investments
   
5,686
     
2,257
 
Cost of acquisition of businesses, net of cash acquired
   
(5,886
)
   
-
 
Purchases of patents, technology and internally developed software
   
-
     
(1,077
)
Net cash used in investing activities
   
(13,712
)
   
(12,219
)
                 
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
               
Proceeds from issuance of common stock
   
6,352
     
5,191
 
Taxes paid on vested and released stock awards
   
(1,083
)
   
(953
)
Debt issuance costs
   
-
     
(622
)
Payments made under capital leases
   
(24
)
   
(327
)
Net cash provided by financing activities
   
5,245
     
3,289
 
                 
NET INCREASE IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS
   
14,743
     
13,955
 
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS - Beginning of period
   
82,162
     
53,472
 
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS - End of period
 
$
96,905
   
$
67,427
 
                 
SUPPLEMENTAL CASH FLOW DISCLOSURE:
               
Cash paid for interest
 
$
14
   
$
201
 
Cash paid for taxes
 
$
804
   
$
496
 
                 
NONCASH INVESTING AND FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
               
                 
Unpaid portion of property and equipment purchases included in period-end accruals
 
$
211
   
$
1,718
 

  See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
 
SHORETEL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)

1. Description of Business

ShoreTel, Inc. was incorporated in California on September 17, 1996 and reincorporated in Delaware on June 22, 2007. ShoreTel, Inc. and its subsidiaries (referred to herein as “ShoreTel” or “the Company”) is a leading provider of brilliantly simple business communication solutions, comprised of integrated voice, video, data and mobile applications based on Internet Protocol (“IP”) technologies. The Company focuses on the small and medium sized businesses (less than 5,000 users), with a Unified Communications (“UC”) platform so that they can communicate anytime, anyplace, and through any device that they chose. The Company’s strategy is to provide customers with a flexible choice of deployment options: subscribing to our cloud-based communication services, operating our ShoreTel solution in their own premise-based data centers or a hybrid combination of both.

2. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2015, and for the three and six months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 have been prepared by the Company, without audit, pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. However, the Company believes that the disclosures are adequate to make the information presented not misleading. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto, included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2015. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for a fair statement have been included.

The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of June 30, 2015 has been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements as of that date but does not include all of the information and footnotes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended June 30, 2015. The results of operations for the three and six months ended December 31, 2015 are not necessarily indicative of the operating results to be expected for the full fiscal year or any future periods.

Correction of Prior Period Error

Subsequent to the issuance of the condensed consolidated financial statements as of and for the three months ended September 30, 2015, the Company determined installation revenue and related cost of revenue was being deferred and recognized over the contractual life for certain contracts that should have been recognized over the customer life. Accordingly, the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements reflect the Company’s correction of the statement of operations impact of the error for the three and six months ended December 31, 2014, the six months ended December 31, 2015 and the condensed consolidated balance sheet impact as of June 30, 2015. As a result, hosted and related services revenue and cost of revenue were decreased by $0.2 million and $0.5 million for the three and six months ended December 31, 2014, respectively. Hosted and related services revenue and cost of revenue were decreased by $0.1 million for the six months ended December 31, 2015. Prepaid expense and other current assets was increased by $2.7 million, other assets was increased by $1.2 million, deferred revenue was increased by $1.0 million and long-term deferred revenue was increased by $3.0 million as of June 30, 2015. The cumulative impact of the correction on preceding period earnings is an increase to accumulated deficit of $0.1 million as of June 30, 2015. The correction did not affect the net cash provided by operating activities, net cash used in investing activities or net cash provided by financing activities for the six months ended December 31, 2014 and 2015. The correction did not affect the earnings per share for the three and six months ended December 31, 2014 or the six months ended December 31, 2015. The foregoing corrections are not considered material by the Company.

Computation of Net Income (Loss) per Share

Basic net income per share is determined by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share is determined by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares used in the basic income per share calculation plus the number of common shares that would be issued assuming conversion of all potentially dilutive securities outstanding under the treasury stock method. Dilutive securities of 1.9 million weighted shares and 2.2 million weighted shares were not included in the computation of diluted net income per share for the three and six months ended December 31, 2015, respectively because such securities were anti-dilutive. Dilutive securities of 4.0 million weighted shares and 3.7 million weighted shares were not included in the computation of diluted net loss per share for the three and six months ended December 31, 2014, respectively because such securities were anti-dilutive.
 
Concentration of Credit Risk

Financial instruments, which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk, consist principally of cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments and accounts receivable. As of December 31, 2015, all of the Company’s cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments were managed by several financial institutions. Accounts receivable are typically unsecured and are derived from revenue earned from customers. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers and maintains allowances for potential credit losses. Accounts receivable from one value-added distributor accounted for 37% of total accounts receivable at December 31, 2015. At June 30, 2015 the same value-added distributor accounted for 33% of the total accounts receivable .

Significant Accounting Policies

The Company’s significant accounting policies are included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2015.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 New Accounting Updates Recently Adopted

In September 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-16, Simplifying the Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments (Topic 805) . The guidance requires that adjustments to provisional amounts recognized in a business combination be recorded during the measurement period in the period in which the adjustment amounts are determined. This also applies to the effect on earnings of changes in depreciation, amortization or other income effects, if any; as a result to the change in the provisional amounts as if the accounting had been completed at the acquisition date. This accounting guidance is effective for the Company in the financial reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2015, with early adoption permitted. This accounting standard was adopted by the Company beginning October 1, 2015 and it did not have an impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

Recent Accounting Standards or Updates Not Yet Effective

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-9 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) - an accounting standard that supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in Topic 605, Revenue Recognition .  The core principle of the new guidance is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. New disclosures about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers are also required. The effective date of the new standard was deferred by one year by ASU No. 2015-14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) Deferral of Effective Date . This accounting guidance is effective for the Company in annual financial reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017; early adoption is permitted for periods beginning after December 15, 2016. ASU No. 2014-9 may be applied retrospectively (a) to each reporting period presented or (b) with the cumulative effect in retained earnings at the beginning of the adoption period. The Company is currently evaluating the method of adoption and the impact that the adoption of this accounting guidance may have on its Consolidated Financial Statements.

In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-11, Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory (Topic 330) . Under this ASU, inventory will be measured at the “lower of cost and net realizable value” and options that currently exist for “market value” will be eliminated. The ASU defines net realizable value as the “estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation.” No other changes were made to the current guidance on inventory measurement. This accounting guidance is effective for the Company in financial reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of this accounting guidance may have on its Consolidated Financial Statements.

In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes (Topic740) , which simplifies the presentation of deferred income taxes. This ASU requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities be classified as non-current in a statement of financial position. The standard is effective in the annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted for any interim and annual financial statements that have not yet been issued. The Company is currently evaluating the new standard, but does not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements as the application of this guidance effects balance sheet classification only.
 
3.   Business Combination

M5 Networks Australia Pty Ltd Acquisition

On November 16, 2015, the Company acquired all outstanding common stock of M5 Networks Australia Pty Ltd. (“M5 Australia”), a privately-held company based in Australia and a provider of hosted unified communications solutions, for total cash consideration of $6.1 million (8.5 million Australian dollars). The acquisition accelerates the Company’s growth and expansion of providing hosted unified communications services in Australia.

In accordance with ASC 805, Business Combinations , the acquisition of M5 Australia was recorded as a purchase acquisition. Under the purchase method of accounting, the fair value of the consideration was allocated to assets and liabilities assumed at their fair values. The excess of the preliminary fair value of consideration paid over the preliminary fair values of net assets and liabilities acquired and identifiable intangible assets resulted in recognition of goodwill of approximately $5.2 million. The goodwill consists largely of expected expansion of the customer base and share within the Australian hosted communications industry. The goodwill recorded is not deductible for income tax purposes.

Preliminary Purchase Price Allocation

The total purchase price was preliminarily allocated to M5 Australia’s net tangible and identifiable intangible assets based on their estimated fair values as of November 16, 2015 as set forth below. The primary areas of the purchase price allocation that are not yet finalized relate to property and equipment, contingency accruals, deferred taxes and goodwill. The following is the preliminary purchase price allocation (in thousands):

   
  
Estimated useful lives
(in years)
 
Cash acquired
 
$
224
     
Other current assets
   
386
     
Intangible assets:
           
Customer relationships
   
1,300
     
5
 
Goodwill
   
5,210
         
Other long-term assets
   
164
         
Other liabilities assumed
   
(1,174
)
       
   
$
6,110
         

Valuing certain components of the acquisition, including intangible assets required us to make estimates that may be adjusted in the future, if new information is obtained about facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date that, if known, would have resulted in the recognition of those assets and liabilities as of that date. Consequently, the purchase price allocation is considered preliminary. Final determination of these estimates could result in an adjustment to the preliminary purchase price allocation, with an offsetting adjustment to goodwill.

The Company expensed $0.2 million for legal, accounting, consulting and other costs directly related to the acquisition during the three months ended December 31, 2015.

The results of operations of M5 Australia have been included in our consolidated statements of operations from the acquisition date, though revenue and net income from M5 Australia were not material for the three and six months December 31, 2015. Pro forma results of operations have not been presented because the acquisition was not material to our results of operations.
 
4. Balance Sheet Details

Balance sheet components consist of the following:

   
December 31,
   
June 30,
 
   
2015
   
2015
 
   
(in thousands)
 
Inventories:
       
Raw materials
 
$
63
   
$
92
 
Distributor inventory
   
1,062
     
965
 
Finished goods
   
13,262
     
13,996
 
Total inventories
 
$
14,387
   
$
15,053
 
                 
Property and equipment:
               
Computer equipment and tooling
 
$
45,439
   
$
41,532
 
Software
   
5,467
     
5,211
 
Furniture and fixtures
   
3,513
     
3,421
 
Leasehold improvements and others
   
8,067
     
8,149
 
Total property and equipment
   
62,486
     
58,313
 
Less accumulated depreciation and amortization
   
(43,437
)
   
(37,894
)
Property and equipment, net
 
$
19,049
   
$
20,419
 
                 
Deferred revenue:
               
Product
 
$
3,503
   
$
2,912
 
Support and services
   
58,620
     
57,967
 
Hosted and related services
   
11,203
     
10,396
 
Total deferred revenue
 
$
73,326
   
$
71,275
 

Depreciation expense for the three months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 was $2.8 million and $2.6 million, respectively. Depreciation expense for the six months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 was $5.7 million and $5.2 million, respectively.

Intangible Assets:

Intangible assets consist of the following (in thousands):

   
December 31, 2015
   
June 30, 2015
 
   
Gross
Carrying
Amount
   
Accumulated
Amortization
   
Net Carrying
Amount
   
Gross
Carrying
Amount
   
Accumulated
Amortization
   
Net Carrying
Amount
 
Patents
 
$
4,446
   
$
(3,793
)
 
$
653
   
$
4,446
   
$
(3,640
)
 
$
806
 
Technology
   
28,034
     
(20,994
)
   
7,040
     
26,644
     
(18,874
)
   
7,770
 
Customer relationships
   
24,600
     
(12,720
)
   
11,880
     
23,300
     
(11,049
)
   
12,251
 
Intangible assets in process and other
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
1,390
     
-
     
1,390
 
Intangible assets
 
$
57,080
   
$
(37,507
)
 
$
19,573
   
$
55,780
   
$
(33,563
)
 
$
22,217
 

The intangible assets that are amortizable have estimated useful lives of two to eight years.
 
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. In accordance with ASC 985-20, Costs of Computer Software to be Sold, Leased, or Marketed , development costs of computer software to be sold, leased, or otherwise marketed are subject to capitalization beginning when a product’s technological feasibility has been established and ending when a product is available for general release to customers. In most instances, the Company’s products are released soon after technological feasibility has been established; therefore, costs incurred subsequent to achievement of technological feasibility are usually not significant. However, during the three and six months ended December 31, 2014, the Company capitalized $0.5 million and $0.9 million, respectively, of such software related to ongoing development of a product that had yet to be released to the market. The Company did not capitalize any software development costs for the three and six months ended December 31, 2015. Such costs are amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated economic life of the product. The Company will evaluate the realizability of the assets and the related periods of amortization on a regular basis. Judgment is required in determining when technological feasibility of a product is established as well as its economic life.

Certain internally developed software became available for general release to customers during the six months ended December 31, 2015; at which time, an aggregate of $1.4 million in software development costs were transferred from intangible assets in process technology in the table above, and the amortization expense is being recognized related to these capitalized software costs.

Amortization of intangible assets for the three months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 was $2.0 million and $2.1 million, respectively. Amortization of intangible assets for the six months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 was $3.9 million and $4.3 million, respectively.

The estimated amortization expenses for intangible assets as of December 31, 2015 for the next five years and thereafter are as follows (in thousands):

Years Ending June 30,
 
 
2016 (remaining 6 months)
 
$
4,080
 
2017
   
6,731
 
2018
   
4,736
 
2019
   
3,248
 
2020
   
523
 
Thereafter
   
255
 
Total
 
$
19,573
 

The following presents the changes in the carrying value of goodwill (in thousands):

   
Total
 
As of June 30, 2015
 
$
122,750
 
Addition (See Note 3)
   
5,210
 
As of December 31, 2015
 
$
127,960
 
 
Short-Term Investments:

The following tables summarize the Company’s short-term investments (in thousands):
 
   
 
Amortized
Cost
   
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
   
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
   
 
 
Fair Value
 
As of December 31, 2015
               
Corporate notes and commercial paper
 
$
8,942
   
$
-
   
$
(21
)
 
$
8,921
 
U.S. Government agency securities
   
1,099
     
-
     
-
     
1,099
 
Total short-term investments
 
$
10,041
   
$
-
   
$
(21
)
 
$
10,020
 
                                 
As of June 30, 2015
                               
Corporate notes and commercial paper
 
$
8,021
   
$
4
   
$
-
   
$
8,025
 
Total short-term investments
 
$
8,021
   
$
4
   
$
-
   
$
8,025
 

The following table summarizes the maturities of the Company’s fixed income securities (in thousands):

   
Amortized
Cost
   
 
Fair Value
 
As of December 31, 2015
       
Less than 1 year
 
$
6,774
   
$
6,763
 
Due in 1 to 3 years
   
3,267
     
3,257
 
Total
 
$
10,041
   
$
10,020
 
 
   
Amortized
Cost
   
 
Fair Value
 
As of June 30, 2015
       
Less than 1 year
 
$
6,696
   
$
6,702
 
Due in 1 to 3 years
   
1,325
     
1,323
 
   
$
8,021
   
$
8,025
 

Actual maturities may differ from the contractual maturities because borrowers may have the right to call or prepay certain obligations.

5. Fair Value Disclosure

Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal market (or most advantageous market, in the absence of a principal market) for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Further, entities are required to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs in measuring fair value, and to utilize a three-level fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value. The three levels of inputs used to measure fair value are as follows:

 
Level 1 — Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

Level 2 — Observable inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1, including quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active; and inputs other than quoted prices that are observable or are derived principally from, or corroborated by, observable market data by correlation or other means.
 
Level 3 — Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity, are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities, and reflect the Company’s own assumptions about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on the best information available in the circumstances.

The tables below set forth the Company’s financial instruments and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis (in thousands):

   
December 31, 2015
 
   
Fair Value
   
Level 1
   
Level 2
   
Level 3
 
Assets:
               
Cash and cash equivalents:
               
Money market funds
 
$
1,999
   
$
1,999
   
$
-
   
$
-
 
Short-term investments:
                               
Corporate notes and commercial paper
   
10,020
     
-
     
10,020
     
-
 
Total assets measured and recorded at fair value
 
$
12,019
   
$
1,999
   
$
10,020
   
$
-
 

The above table excludes $94.9 million of cash balances on deposit at banks.

   
June 30, 2015
 
   
Fair Value
   
Level 1
   
Level 2
   
Level 3
 
Assets:
               
Cash and cash equivalents:
               
Money market funds
 
$
4,025
   
$
4,025
   
$
-
   
$
-
 
Short-term investments:
                               
Corporate notes and commercial paper
   
8,025
     
-
     
8,025
     
-
 
Total assets measured and recorded at fair value
 
$
12,050
   
$
4,025
   
$
8,025
   
$
-
 

The above table excludes $78.1 million of cash balances on deposit at banks.

Money market funds are classified within Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy because they are valued using quoted market prices in active markets. Short-term investments are classified within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy because they are valued based on other observable inputs, including broker or dealer quotations, or alternative pricing sources. When quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities are not available, the Company relies on non-binding quotes from independent pricing services. Non-binding quotes are based on proprietary valuation models prepared by independent pricing services. These models use algorithms based on inputs such as observable market data, quoted market prices for similar instruments, historical pricing trends of a security as relative to its peers, internal assumptions of the independent pricing service and statistically supported models. The Company corroborates the reasonableness of non-binding quotes received from the independent pricing service by comparing them to the (a) actual experience gained from the purchases and redemption of investment securities, (b) quotes received on similar securities obtained when purchasing securities and (c) monitoring changes in ratings of similar securities and the related impact on the fair value. The types of instruments valued based on other observable inputs include corporate notes and commercial paper and U.S. Government agency securities. The Company reviewed financial and non-financial assets and liabilities and concluded that there were no other-than-temporary impairment charges during the three and six months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.   The Company reviews the fair value hierarchy on a quarterly basis. Changes in the ability to observe valuation inputs may result in a reclassification of levels of certain securities within the fair value hierarchy. The Company recognizes transfers into and out of levels within the fair value hierarchy as of the date in which the actual event or change in circumstances that caused the transfer occurs. There were no transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy for any of the periods presented.

Assets and Liabilities That Are Measured at Fair Value on a Nonrecurring Basis

Non-financial assets such as goodwill, intangible assets, and property, plant, and equipment are evaluated for impairment and adjusted to fair value using Level 3 inputs, only when impairment is recognized. Fair values are considered Level 3 when management makes significant assumptions in developing a discounted cash flow model based upon a number of considerations including projections of revenues, earnings and a discount rate. In addition, in evaluating the fair value of goodwill impairment, further corroboration is obtained using the Company’s market capitalization. There were no indicators of impairment in the three and six months ended December 31, 2015 that required a nonrecurring fair value analysis to be performed on non-financial assets.
 
6. Line of Credit

On October 22, 2014 the Company entered into an Amended and Restated Credit Agreement which was further amended on December 1, 2014 and again on August 5, 2015 (“New Credit Facility”) . This New Credit Facility replaces the Company’s previous credit facility. The New Credit Facility includes a revolving loan facility for an aggregate principal amount not exceeding $100.0 million. The New Credit Facility matures on the fifth anniversary of its closing (October 22, 2019) and is payable in full upon maturity. The amounts borrowed and repaid under the New Credit Facility are available for future borrowings.  The borrowings under the New Credit Facility accrue interest (at the election of the Company) either at (i) the London interbank offered rate then in effect, plus a margin of between 1.50% and 2.25%, which is based on the Company’s consolidated EBITDA (as defined in the New Credit Facility), or (ii) the higher of (a) the bank’s publicly-announced prime rate then in effect and (b) the federal funds rate plus 0.50%, in each case of (a) or (b), plus a margin of between 0.00% and 0.50%, which will be based upon the Company’s consolidated EBITDA. The Company also pays annual commitment fees during the term of the New Credit Facility which varies depending on the Company’s consolidated EBITDA. The New Credit Facility is secured by substantially all of the Company’s assets. As of December 31, 2015, the Company had $99.4 million available for borrowing under the New Credit Facility.

The New Credit Facility contains customary affirmative and negative covenants, including compliance with financial ratios and metrics. The New Credit Facility and the related amendment requires the Company to maintain a minimum ratio of liquidity to its indebtedness (each as defined in the New Credit Facility) and varying amounts of Liquidity and Consolidated EBITDA specified in the New Credit Facility throughout the term of the agreement. The Company was in compliance with all such covenants as of December 31, 2015.

As of December 31, 2015, no amounts were outstanding under the New Credit Facility. The Company amortizes deferred financing costs to interest expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the New Credit Facility.

7. Income Taxes

The Company recorded an income tax provision of $0.4 million and $0.1 million for the three months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively and $0.8 million and $0.5 million for the six months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. The income tax provisions are primarily comprised of United States federal alternative minimum tax, state taxes and foreign income taxes. No income tax benefit was accrued for jurisdictions where the Company anticipates incurring a loss during the full fiscal year as the related deferred tax assets were fully offset by a valuation allowance.  The Company’s resulting effective tax rate differs from the applicable statutory rate primarily due to the valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets in select jurisdictions.

The Company maintains liabilities for uncertain tax positions. As of December 31, 2015 and June 30, 2015, the Company’s total amount of unrecognized tax benefits was $5.3 million and $5.1 million, respectively. Of the total of $5.3 million of unrecognized tax benefit as of December 31, 2015, none, if recognized, would impact the effective tax rate. The Company does not expect its unrecognized tax benefits to change materially over the next 12 months.

While management believes that the Company has adequately provided for all tax positions, amounts asserted by tax authorities could be greater or less than the Company’s current position. Accordingly, the Company’s provisions for federal, state and foreign tax related matters to be recorded in the future may change as revised estimates are made or as the underlying matters are settled or otherwise resolved.

The Company’s primary tax jurisdiction is in the United States. For federal and state tax purposes, the tax years 2002 through 2014 remain open and subject to tax examination by the appropriate federal or state taxing authorities. The Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes (PATH) Act (“Act”) was signed into law on December 18, 2015.  The Act contains a number of provisions including, most notably, permanent extension of the United States federal research tax credit.  The Act did not have a material impact on our effective tax rate for fiscal 2015 due to the effect of the valuation allowance on the Company's deferred tax assets.
 
8. Common Stock

Common Shares Reserved for Issuance

At December 31, 2015, the Company has reserved shares of common stock for issuance as follows (in thousands):

Reserved under stock option plans
   
25,036
 
Reserved under employee stock purchase plan
   
369
 
Total
   
25,405
 

  9. Stock-Based Compensation

The following table shows total non-cash stock-based compensation expense included in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements Income for the three and six months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 (in thousands):

   
Three Months Ended
December 31,
   
Six Months Ended
December 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
   
2015
   
2014
 
Cost of product revenue
 
$
12
   
$
13
   
$
41
   
$
49
 
Cost of hosted and related services revenue
   
283
     
293
     
667
     
636
 
Cost of support and services revenue
   
135
     
118
     
347
     
298
 
Research and development
   
433
     
461
     
920
     
1,119
 
Sales and marketing
   
569
     
585
     
1,431
     
1,296
 
General and administrative
   
728
     
576
     
1,526
     
1,187
 
   
$
2,160
   
$
2,046
   
$
4,932
   
$
4,585
 

The Company estimated the grant date fair value of stock option awards and Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”) rights using the Black-Scholes option valuation model with the following assumptions:

   
Three Months Ended
December 31,
   
Six Months Ended
December 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
   
2015
   
2014
 
               
Expected life from grant date of option (in years)
   
5.09
     
5.05
     
5.09 - 5.13
     
5.05 - 5.09
 
Expected life from grant date of ESPP (in years)
   
0.50
     
0.50
     
0.50
     
0.50
 
Risk free interest rate for options
   
1.59%
 
   
1.60%
 
   
1.55% - 1.59%
 
   
1.60% - 1.70%
 
Risk free interest rate for ESPP
   
0.41%
 
   
0.09%
 
   
0.14% - 0.41%
 
   
0.06% - 0.09%
 
Expected volatility for options
   
47%
 
   
50%
 
   
47% - 48%
 
   
50%
 
Expected volatility for ESPP
   
29%
 
   
43%
 
   
29% - 35%
 
   
43%
 
Expected dividend yield
   
0%
 
   
0%
 
   
0%
 
   
0%
 

Compensation expense is recognized only for the portion of stock options that are expected to vest, assuming an expected forfeiture rate in determining stock-based compensation expense, which could affect the stock-based compensation expense recorded if there is a significant difference between actual and estimated forfeiture rates. As of December 31, 2015, total unrecognized compensation cost related to stock-based options and awards granted to employees and non-employee directors was $9.3 million. This cost will be amortized on a ratable basis over a weighted-average vesting period of approximately 2.8 years.
 
10. Stock Option Plan

Transactions under the Company’s equity incentive plans are summarized as follows (in thousands, except per share data and contractual term):

   
Options Outstanding
 
   
Shares
Subject to
Options
Outstanding
   
Weighted-
Average
Exercise
Price
   
Weighted-
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Term
(in years)
   
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
 
Balance at July 1, 2015
   
6,263
   
$
5.72
         
Options granted (weighted average fair value $3.25 per share)
   
1,537
     
7.47
         
Options exercised
   
(857
)
   
5.01
         
Options cancelled/forfeited
   
(210
)
   
6.31
         
Balance at December 31, 2015
   
6,733
   
$
6.19
     
6.89
   
$
18,459
 
Vested and expected to vest at December 31, 2015
   
5,620
   
$
6.05
     
6.45
   
$
16,259
 
Options exercisable at December 31, 2015
   
3,597
   
$
5.82
     
5.18
   
$
11,375
 

The total pre-tax intrinsic value for options exercised during the three months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 was $2.9 million and $1.8 million, respectively, and $3.4 million and $1.9 million for the six months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively, representing the difference between the fair values of the Company’s common stock underlying these options at the dates of exercise and the exercise prices paid.

11. Employee Stock Purchase Plan

The ESPP allows eligible employees to purchase shares of the Company’s common stock at a discount through payroll deductions. The ESPP consists of six-month offering periods commencing on May 1 st and November 1 st , each year. Under the ESPP, employees purchase shares of the Company's common stock at 85% of the market value at either the beginning of the offering period or the end of the offering period, whichever price is lower.

12. Restricted Stock

Under the Company’s equity incentive plan, during the three and six months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 the Company issued fully vested restricted stock awards to certain non-employee directors electing to receive them in lieu of an annual cash retainer. In addition, restricted stock units can be issued under the 2007 Plan to eligible employees.

Restricted stock award and restricted stock unit activity for the six months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 is as follows (in thousands):

   
Six Months Ended
December 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
 
Beginning outstanding
   
1,452
     
1,394
 
Awarded
   
970
     
762
 
Released
   
(479
)
   
(486
)
Forfeited
   
(111
)
   
(101
)
Ending outstanding
   
1,832
     
1,569
 
 
Information regarding restricted stock awards and restricted stock units outstanding at December 31, 2015 is summarized below:

   
Number of Shares
(thousands)
   
Weighted Average
Remaining
Contractual Lives
   
Aggregate Intrinsic
Value
(thousands)
 
Shares outstanding
   
1,832
     
1.74
   
$
16,213
 
Shares expected to vest
   
1,066
     
1.40
   
$
9,436
 

13. Litigation, Commitments, Contingencies and Leases

Litigation — As of December 31, 2015, the Company is involved in litigation relating to claims arising out of the ordinary course of business or otherwise. Any litigation, regardless of outcome, is costly and time-consuming, can divert the attention of management and key personnel from business operations, deter distributors from selling the Company’s products and dissuade potential customers from purchasing the Company’s products. The Company defends itself vigorously against any such claims. Due to the uncertainty surrounding the litigation process, the Company is unable to estimate a range of loss, if any, at this time, however the Company does not believe a material loss is probable.

Contingencies — During the six months ended December 31, 2014 the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) issued a Notice of Proposed Adjustment (“NOPA”) resulting from a withholding tax audit of payments made to non-U.S. vendors during calendar years 2008 through 2012.  The NOPA asserts a liability for under-withheld taxes of approximately $2.0 million, plus related penalties and estimated interest of approximately $1.3 million. While the Company disagrees with a majority of the IRS’ assertions and proposed liability, the Company accrued $1.1 million for the liability during fiscal 2015.

Leases — The Company leases its facilities under noncancelable operating leases which expire at various times through 2023. The leases provide for the lessee to pay all costs of utilities, insurance, and taxes. Future minimum lease payments under the noncancelable capital and operating leases as of December 31, 2015, are as follows (in thousands):

Years Ending June 30,
 
Operating
Leases
   
Capital
Leases
 
2016 (remaining 6 months)
 
$
3,320
     
24
 
2017
   
6,423
     
12
 
2018
   
5,808
     
-
 
2019
   
4,479
     
-
 
2020
   
3,035
     
-
 
Therafter
   
2,682
     
-
 
Total minimum lease payments
 
$
25,747
     
36
 
                 
Less: amount representing interest
           
-
 
Present value of total minimum lease payments
           
36
 
Less: current portion liability
           
(34
)
Capital lease obligation, net of current portion
         
$
2
 

The current portion of the capital leases is included in accrued liabilities and other on the condensed consolidated balance sheet. The non-current portion of the capital leases is included in the other long-term liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet. Lease obligations for the Company’s foreign offices are denominated in foreign currencies, which were converted in the above table to U.S. dollars at the interbank exchange rate on December 31, 2015.

Rent expense for the three months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 was $1.3 million and $1.8 million, respectively. Rent expense for the six months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 was $2.5 million and $2.9 million, respectively.

Purchase commitments — The Company had purchase commitments with contract manufacturers for inventory and with technology firms for usage of software licenses totaling approximately $14.4 million as of December 31, 2015 and $14.9 million as of June 30, 2015.
 
Letters of credit — Outstanding letters of credit maintained by the Company totaled $635,000 as of December 31, 2015.

Indemnification — Under the indemnification provisions of the Company’s customer agreements, the Company agrees to indemnify and defend its customers against infringement of any patent, trademark, or copyright of any country or the misappropriation of any trade secret, arising from the customers’ legal use of the Company’s services. The exposure to the Company under these indemnification provisions is generally limited to the total amount paid by the customers under pertinent agreements. However, certain indemnification provisions potentially expose the Company to losses in excess of the aggregate amount received from the customer.

The Company also has entered into customary indemnification agreements with each of its officers and directors.

14. Segment Information

ASC Topic 280, Segment Reporting , establishes standards for reporting information about operating segments, products and services, geographic areas of operations and major customers. Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise for which separate financial information is available and evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker or decision making group in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.   The Company’s chief operating decision-maker is its Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”). The CEO reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of making operating decisions and assessing financial performance. On this basis, the Company is organized and operates in a single segment: the design, development, marketing, and sale of business communication solutions .

Revenue by geographic region is based on the ship to address on the customer order. The following presents total revenue by geographic region (in thousands):

   
Three Months Ended
December 31,
   
Six Months Ended
December 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
   
2015
   
2014
 
United States of America
 
$
82,711
   
$
82,912
   
$
165,382
   
$
166,100
 
International
   
7,720
     
7,695
     
15,074
     
14,659
 
Total
 
$
90,431
   
$
90,607
   
$
180,456
   
$
180,759
 

Revenue from one value-added distributor accounted for approximately 26% and 24% of the total revenue during the three months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively and 26% of the total revenue during both the six months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014.

The Company’s assets are primarily located in the United States of America and not allocated to any specific region; furthermore, the Company does not measure the performance of its geographic regions based upon asset-based metrics.

The following presents a summary of long-lived assets, excluding deferred tax assets, other assets, goodwill and intangible assets (in thousands):

   
December 31,
2015
   
June 30,
2015
 
United States of America
 
$
18,072
   
$
19,505
 
International
   
977
     
914
 
Total
 
$
19,049
   
$
20,419
 

15. Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities

In the normal course of business, the Company is exposed to fluctuations in interest rates and the exchange rates associated with foreign currencies. During the three and six months ended December 31, 2015, the Company used derivative instruments to reduce the volatility of earnings associated with changes in foreign currency exchange rates. The Company used foreign exchange forward contracts to mitigate the gains and losses generated from the re-measurement of certain foreign monetary assets and liabilities, primarily including cash balances, third party accounts receivable and intercompany transactions recorded on the balance sheet. These derivatives are not designated and do not qualify as hedge instruments. Accordingly, changes in the fair value of these instruments are recognized in other income and expenses during the period of change. These derivatives have maturities of approximately one month. The foreign exchange forward contracts outstanding as of December 31, 2015 are entered into by the Company on the last business day of the period. Given the relatively short duration such contracts are outstanding in relation to changes in potential market rates; the change in the fair value is not material and is not reflected either as an asset or a liability.
 
The following table presents the gross notional value of all of the Company’s foreign exchange forward contracts outstanding as of December 31, 2015 and June 30, 2015 (in thousands):

   
December 31, 2015
 
   
Local Currency
Amount
   
Notional Contract
Amount (USD)
 
Australian dollar
 
$
1,860
   
$
1,340
 
British pound
 
£
1,540
     
2,249
 
Canadian dollar
 
$
1,110
     
793
 
Euro
 
1,330
     
1,437
 
Total
         
$
5,819
 

   
June 30, 2015
 
   
Local Currency
Amount
   
Notional Contract
Amount (USD)
 
Australian dollar
 
$
2,420
   
$
1,840
 
British pound
 
£
910
     
1,429
 
Canadian dollar
 
$
750
     
596
 
Euro
 
1,550
     
1,708
 
Total
         
$
5,573
 

16. Subsequent Event

On January 6, 2016, the Company completed its acquisition of all the outstanding membership interests of Corvisa LLC (“Corvisa”) for total cash consideration of approximately $8.4 million pursuant to the terms of a Membership Interest Purchase Agreement. The Company has expensed $0.3 million for legal, consulting and other costs directly related to the acquisition during the three months ended December 31, 2015.

In accordance with ASC 805, Business Combinations , the acquisition of Corvisa will be recorded as a purchase business acquisition in the Company’s financial results for the three months ended March 31, 2016. The initial accounting for the Corvisa acquisition has not been completed at this time, therefore, disclosure will be made in the Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2016.

ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this document. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed below. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below, and those discussed in the section entitled “Risk Factors.”

Overview

ShoreTel is a leading provider of brilliantly simple business communication solutions, comprised of integrated voice, video, data and mobile applications based on Internet Protocol (“IP”) technologies. We focus on the small and medium sized businesses (less than 5,000 users), with a Unified Communications (“UC”) platform so that they can communicate anytime, anyplace, and through any device that they chose. Our strategy is to provide customers with a flexible choice of deployment options: subscribing to our cloud-based communication services, operating our ShoreTel solution in their own premise-based data centers or a hybrid combination of both.
 
We believe our solution addresses changes in the UC market being driven by both technological advances and new workplace trends. We believe some of the current factors affecting the UC market include: addressing an increasingly mobile workforce, the increased adoption of a Bring Your Own Device (“BYOD”) philosophy, the ongoing need for electronic collaboration and a desire for multiple forms of communication. Our solutions are sold through our extensive network of over 1,000 authorized resellers and value-added distributors throughout the world served either by national distributors or by ShoreTel directly.

We have developed a cloud-purposed, multi-tenanted common platform comprised of a single call control. This common platform, named ShoreTel Connect, will enable a single ShoreTel solution, which includes common applications such as contact center, conferencing and mobility as well as common endpoints, to be consumed in a cloud, premise or hybrid environment.

We currently provide our ShoreTel solution via multiple deployment options, as well as a diverse set of applications and services for both premise and hosted deployment models, consisting of ShoreTel IP Telephony, ShoreTel Unified Communications, ShoreTel Contact Center, ShoreTel Mobility, and professional services including ShoreTel Global Services and application and development professional services.

We are headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and have offices located throughout North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Additionally, our cloud-based services are provided from multiple data centers in the United States and the United Kingdom. While most of our customers are located in the United States, we have remained relatively consistent in revenue from international sales, which accounted for approximately 9% and 8% of our total revenue for the three months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively, and 8% for both the six months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014. We expect sales to customers in the United States will continue to comprise the majority of our sales in the foreseeable future.

Key Business Metrics

We monitor a number of key metrics to help forecast growth, establish budgets, measure the effectiveness of sales and marketing efforts and measure operational effectiveness.

Deferred revenue. Deferred revenue relates to the timing of revenue recognition for specific transactions based on delivery of service, support, specific commitments, product and services delivered to our value-added distributors that have not been delivered or sold through to resellers, and other factors. Deferred revenue primarily consists of billings or payments received in advance of revenue recognition from our transactions and are recognized as the revenue recognition criteria are met. Nearly all of our premise system sales include the purchase of post-contractual support contracts with terms of up to five years, and our renewal rates on these contracts have been high historically. We recognize support revenue on a ratable basis over the term of the support contract. Since we receive payment for support in advance of recognizing the related revenue, we carry a deferred revenue balance on our consolidated balance sheet. Almost all of our hosted services are billed a month in advance. Billings that are collected before the service is delivered are included in the deferred revenue balance on our consolidated balance sheet. These amounts are recognized as revenue as the services are delivered. Our deferred revenue balance at December 31, 2015 was $73.3 million, of which $52.5 million is expected to be recognized within one year.

Gross margin. Our gross margins for products are primarily affected by our ability to reduce hardware costs faster than the decline in average overall system sales prices. We strive to increase our product gross margin by reducing hardware costs through product redesign and volume discount pricing from our suppliers. In general, product gross margin on our switches is greater than product gross margin on our IP phones. We consider our ability to monitor and manage these factors to be a key aspect of maintaining product gross margins and increasing our profitability.

Gross margin for hosted and related services is lower than the gross margins for support and services and product and is impacted primarily by the reselling of broadband circuits to customers, employee-related expense, data communication cost, carrier cost, telecom taxes, and intangible asset amortization expense. We expect that with the growth in hosted and related services revenue, the gross margins may reflect improvement due to economies of scale, synergies and other cost reductions in our service delivery platform.

Gross margin for support and services is impacted primarily by labor-related expenses. The primary goal of our support and services function is to ensure a high level of customer satisfaction and our investments in support personnel and infrastructure are made with this goal in mind. We expect that as our installed enterprise customer base grows, we may be able to slightly improve gross margin for support and services through economies of scale. However, the timing of additional investments in our support and services infrastructure could materially affect our cost of support and services revenue, both in absolute dollars and as a percentage of support and services revenue and total revenue, in any particular period.
 
Operating expense. Our operating expenses are comprised primarily of compensation and benefits for our employees. Accordingly, increases in operating expenses historically have been primarily related to increases in our headcount. We intend to expand our workforce as we grow, and therefore, our ability to forecast revenue is critical to managing our operating expenses.

Average revenue per user . We calculate the monthly average service revenue per user (“ARPU”) for our hosted and related services revenue as the average monthly revenue per customer divided by the average number of seats per customer. The average monthly revenue per customer is calculated as the monthly service revenue from customers in the period, divided by the simple average number of business customers during the period. Our ARPU includes telecommunication internet circuits that we resell that could, as a percentage of our business, decline over time as our average customer size increases and therefore they are more likely to have their own networks already established. Our monthly ARPU was approximately $52 for both the three months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014.

Revenue churn . Revenue churn for our hosted and related services revenue is calculated by dividing the monthly recurring revenue from customers that have terminated during a period by the simple average of the total monthly recurring revenue from all customers in a given period. The effective management of the revenue churn is critical to our ability to maximize revenue growth and to maintain and improve margins. Our annualized revenue churn for customers that have terminated services for the three months ended December 31, 2015 was approximately 6% as compared to 5% for the three months ended December 31, 2014.

Basis of Presentation

Revenue. We derive our revenue from sales of our premise and hosted IP telecommunications systems and related support and services.

Product revenue . Product revenue consists of sales of our premise and hosted IP telecommunication systems. Our typical system includes a combination of IP phones, switches and software applications primarily for our premise-based solutions. We sell our products through channel partners that include resellers and value-added distributors. Prices to a given channel partner for hardware and software products depend on that channel partner's volume and other criteria, as well as our own strategic considerations. Product revenue has accounted for 45% and 52% of our total revenue for the three months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively and 46% and 52% of our total revenue for the six months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

Hosted and related services revenue. Hosted and related services and solutions consist primarily of our proprietary hosted VoIP Unified Communications system as well as other services such as foreign and domestic calling plans, certain UC applications, internet service provisioning, regulatory and telecommunications fees, training and other professional services. Our hosted and related services are sold through indirect channel resellers and a direct sales force. Our customers enter into one to three year service agreements whereby they are billed for such services on a monthly basis. Revenue from our hosted and related services is recognized on a monthly basis as services are delivered. Revenue associated with various calling plans and internet services are recognized as such services are provided. Hosted and related services revenues accounted for 34% and 28% of our total revenue for the three months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively, and 33% and 28% of our total revenue for the six months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. We expect that hosted and related services revenue will continue to increase as a percentage of total revenue.

Support and services revenue. Support and services revenue primarily consists of post-contractual support, and to a lesser extent revenue from training services, professional services and premise-based installations that we perform. Post-contractual support includes software updates which grant rights to unspecified software license upgrades and maintenance releases issued during the support period. Post-contractual support also includes both Internet- and phone-based technical support. Revenue from post-contractual support is recognized ratably over the contractual service period. Support and services revenues accounted for 21% and 20% of our total revenue for the three months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively, and 21% and 20% of our total revenue for the six months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

Cost of revenue. Cost of product revenue consists primarily of hardware costs, royalties and license fees for third-party software included in our systems, salary and related overhead costs of operations personnel, freight, warranty costs and provision for excess inventory. The majority of these costs vary with the unit volumes of products sold. Cost of hosted and related services revenue consists of personnel and related costs of the hosted services, data center costs, data communication cost, costs of regulatory and telecommunications fees, carrier cost and amortization of intangible assets. Cost of support and services revenue consists of salary and related overhead costs of personnel engaged in support and service.

Research and development expenses.   Research and development expenses primarily include personnel costs, outside engineering costs, professional services, prototype costs, test equipment, software usage fees and facilities expenses. Research and development expenses are recognized when incurred. We have capitalized development costs incurred from determination of technological feasibility through general release of the product to customers, although capitalized development costs historically have not been significant. We are devoting substantial resources to the development of additional functionality of our Connect platform products and the ongoing development of new product technologies and related software applications to support this platform. We intend to continue to make investments in our research and development efforts because we believe they are essential to maintaining and improving our competitive position.
 
Sales and marketing expenses. Sales and marketing expenses primarily include personnel costs, sales and partner commissions, travel, marketing, promotional and lead generation programs, branding and advertising, trade shows, sales demonstration equipment, professional services fees, amortization of intangible assets, and facilities expenses.  We plan to continue to invest in development of our distribution channel by increasing the size of our field sales force to enable us to expand into new geographies and further increase our sales to enterprise customers.  We plan to continue investing in our domestic and international marketing activities to help build brand awareness and create sales leads for our channel partners.  We expect that sales and marketing expenses will be our largest operating expense category.

General and administrative expenses. General and administrative expenses primarily relate to our executive, finance, human resources, legal and information technology organizations. General and administrative expenses primarily consist of personnel costs, professional fees for legal, board of directors' costs, accounting, tax, compliance and information systems, travel, recruiting expense, depreciation expense and facilities expenses.

Settlements and defense fees . Settlements and defense fees relate to one-time charges related to probable and estimable litigation settlement amounts and professional fees incurred in connection with an unsolicited acquisition proposal.

Acquisition-related costs. Acquisition-related costs relate to legal, accounting, consulting, investment banker and other costs directly related acquisitions

Interest expense. Interest expense primarily consists of interest expense on our debt as well as other miscellaneous items affecting our operating results.

Interest income and other (expense). Interest income and other (expense) primarily consists of interest earned on cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, gains and losses on foreign currency translations and transactions as other miscellaneous items affecting our operating results.

Provision for income taxes. Provision for income taxes includes federal, state and foreign tax on our income as well as any adjustments made to our valuation allowance for deferred tax assets. Since our inception, we have accumulated substantial net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. We account for income taxes under an asset and liability approach.  Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of temporary differences between assets and liabilities recognized for financial reporting purposes and such amounts recognized for income tax reporting purposes, net operating loss carryforwards and other tax credits measured by applying current enacted tax laws. Valuation allowances are provided when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to an amount that is more likely than not to be realized.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The preparation of our financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”) requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. These estimates and assumptions are based on historical experience and various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. We consider our accounting policies related to revenue recognition, stock-based compensation, goodwill and purchased-intangible assets and accounting for income taxes to be critical accounting policies. A number of significant estimates, assumptions, and judgments are inherent in our determination of when to recognize revenue, how to estimate the best evidence of selling price for revenue recognition, the calculation of stock-based compensation expense, evaluation of the potential impairment of goodwill and purchased-intangible assets and the accounting for income and telecom taxes. We base our estimates and judgments on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates. Management believes there have been no significant changes during the three and six months ended December 31, 2015 to the items that we disclosed as our critical accounting policies and estimates in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2015 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. For a description of those accounting policies, please refer to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2015.
 
Results of Operations

The following table sets forth unaudited selected condensed consolidated statements of income data for the three and six months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 (in thousands, except per share amounts):

   
Three Months Ended
December 31,
   
Six Months Ended
December 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
   
2015
   
2014
 
Revenue:
               
Product
 
$
41,048
   
$
46,913
   
$
82,581
   
$
94,620
 
Hosted and related services
   
30,484
     
25,503
     
59,886
     
50,115
 
Support and services
   
18,899
     
18,191
     
37,989
     
36,024
 
Total revenue
   
90,431
     
90,607
     
180,456
     
180,759
 
Cost of revenue:
                               
Product
   
13,692
     
15,613
     
27,173
     
32,392
 
Hosted and related services
   
14,119
     
15,423
     
27,946
     
30,751
 
Support and services
   
4,735
     
4,301
     
9,440
     
8,582
 
Total cost of revenue
   
32,546
     
35,337
     
64,559
     
71,725
 
Gross profit
   
57,885
     
55,270
     
115,897
     
109,034
 
Operating expenses:
                               
Research and development
   
13,793
     
13,272
     
27,630
     
26,933
 
Sales and marketing
   
30,272
     
29,301
     
61,115
     
58,317
 
General and administrative
   
9,703
     
10,562
     
19,818
     
20,553
 
Settlements and defense fees
   
-
     
8,422
     
-
     
8,422
 
Acquisition-related costs
   
534
     
-
     
534
     
-
 
Total operating expenses
   
54,302
     
61,557
     
109,097
     
114,225
 
Income (loss) from operations
   
3,583
     
(6,287
)
   
6,800
     
(5,191
)
Other income (expense):
                               
Interest expense
   
(115
)
   
(107
)
   
(238
)
   
(260
)
Interest income and other (expense), net
   
(560
)
   
(343
)
   
(1,137
)
   
(556
)
Total other expense
   
(675
)
   
(450
)
   
(1,375
)
   
(816
)
Income (loss) before provision for income taxes
   
2,908
     
(6,737
)
   
5,425
     
(6,007
)
Provision for income taxes
   
363
     
125
     
766
     
503
 
Net income (loss)
 
$
2,545
   
$
(6,862
)
 
$
4,659
   
$
(6,510
)
Net income (loss) per share - basic
 
$
0.04
   
$
(0.11
)
 
$
0.07
   
$
(0.10
)
Net income (loss) per share - diluted
 
$
0.04
   
$
(0.11
)
 
$
0.07
   
$
(0.10
)
Shares used in computing net income (loss) per share - basic
   
66,184
     
63,728
     
65,725
     
63,348
 
Shares used in computing net income (loss) per share - diluted
   
68,074
     
63,728
     
67,471
     
63,348
 
 
The following table sets forth selected condensed consolidated statements of income data as a percentage of total revenue for each of the periods indicated.

   
Three Months Ended
December 31,
   
Six Months Ended
December 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
   
2015
   
2014
 
Revenue:
               
Product
   
45
%
   
52
%
   
46
%
   
52
%
Hosted and related services
   
34
%
   
28
%
   
33
%
   
28
%
Support and services
   
21
%
   
20
%
   
21
%
   
20
%
Total revenue
   
100
%
   
100
%
   
100
%
   
100
%
Cost of revenue:
                               
Product
   
15
%
   
17
%
   
15
%
   
18
%
Hosted and related services
   
16
%
   
17
%
   
16
%
   
17
%
Support and services
   
5
%
   
5
%
   
5
%
   
5
%
Total cost of revenue
   
36
%
   
39
%
   
36
%
   
40
%
Gross profit
   
64
%
   
61
%
   
64
%
   
60
%
Operating expenses:
                               
Research and development
   
15
%
   
15
%
   
15
%
   
15
%
Sales and marketing
   
33
%
   
32
%
   
34
%
   
32
%
General and administrative
   
11
%
   
12
%
   
11
%
   
11
%
Settlements and defense fees
   
-
     
9
%
   
-
     
5
%
Acquisition-related costs
   
1
%
   
-
     
-
     
-
 
Total operating expenses
   
60
%
   
68
%
   
60
%
   
63
%
Income (loss) from operations
   
4
%
   
(7
%)
   
4
%
   
(3
%)
Other income (expense):
                               
Interest expense
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
-
 
Interest income and other (expense), net
   
(1
%)
   
-
     
(1
%)
   
(1
%)
Total other expense
   
(1
%)
   
-
     
(1
%)
   
(1
%)
Income (loss) before provision for income taxes
   
3
%
   
(7
%)
   
3
%
   
(4
%)
Provision for income taxes
   
-
     
-
     
-
     
-
 
Net income (loss)
   
3
%
   
(7
%)
   
3
%
   
(4
%)

Comparison of the three and six months ended December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014

Revenue

   
Three Months Ended
December 31,
   
Six Months Ended
December 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
   
Change $
   
Change %
   
2015
   
2014
   
Change $
   
Change %
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
                               
Product revenue
 
$
41,048
   
$
46,913
   
$
(5,865
)
   
(13
%)
 
$
82,581
   
$
94,620
   
$
(12,039
)
   
(13
%)
Hosted and related services revenue
   
30,484
     
25,503
     
4,981
     
20
%
   
59,886
     
50,115
     
9,771
     
19
%
Support and services revenue
   
18,899
     
18,191
     
708
     
4
%
   
37,989
     
36,024
     
1,965
     
5
%
Total revenue
 
$
90,431
   
$
90,607
   
$
(176
)
   
-
   
$
180,456
   
$
180,759
   
$
(303
)
   
-
 

Total revenue remained relatively consistent at $90.4 million in the three months ended December 31, 2015 as compared to $90.6 million in the three months ended December 31, 2014.

Total revenue remained relatively consistent at $180.5 million in the six months ended December 31, 2015 as compared to $180.8 million in the three months ended December 31, 2014.
 
Product revenue

Product revenue decreased by $5.9 million, or 13%, and $12.0 million, or 13%, during the three and six months ended December 31, 2015, respectively, as compared to the same period in the prior year primarily due to the decline in volume from new customers.

Hosted and related services revenue

Hosted and related services revenue increased by $5.0 million, or 20%, and $9.8 million, or 19%, in the three and six months ended December 31, 2015, respectively, as compared to the same period in the prior year. The increase in hosted and related services revenue was primarily due to continued growth in our hosted customer base, increase in our non-recurring revenue such as installation fees and usage based telecommunications charges as well as additional increases in the use of our services from existing customers.

Support and services revenue

Support and services revenue increased by $0.7 million, or 4%, and $2.0 million, or 5%, in the three and six months ended December 31, 2015, respectively, as compared to the same period in the prior year. The increase in support and services revenue was primarily due to our ability to maintain high renewal rates on maintenance contracts as well as the continued expansion of our customer base resulting from sales to new customers who entered into post-contractual support agreements.

Cost of revenue and gross profit

   
Three Months Ended
December 31,
   
Six Months Ended
December 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
   
Change $
   
Change %
   
2015
   
2014
   
Change $
   
Change %
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
                               
Product cost of revenue
 
$
13,692
   
$
15,613
   
$
(1,921
)
   
(12
%)
 
$
27,173
   
$
32,392
   
$
(5,219
)
   
(16
%)
Hosted and related services cost of revenue
   
14,119
     
15,423
     
(1,304
)
   
(8
%)
   
27,946
     
30,751
     
(2,805
)
   
(9
%)
Support and services cost of revenue
   
4,735
     
4,301
     
434
     
10
%
   
9,440
     
8,582
     
858
     
10
%
Total cost of revenue
 
$
32,546
   
$
35,337
   
$
(2,791
)
   
(8
%)
 
$
64,559
   
$
71,725
   
$
(7,166
)
   
(10
%)
                                                                 
Product gross profit
 
$
27,356
   
$
31,300
   
$
(3,944
)
   
(13
%)
 
$
55,408
   
$
62,228
   
$
(6,820
)
   
(11
%)
Hosted and related services gross profit
   
16,365
     
10,080
     
6,285
     
62
%
   
31,940
     
19,364
     
12,576
     
65
%
Support and services gross profit
   
14,164
     
13,890
     
274
     
2
%
   
28,549
     
27,442
     
1,107
     
4
%
Total gross profit
 
$
57,885
   
$
55,270
   
$
2,615
     
5
%
 
$
115,897
   
$
109,034
   
$
6,863
     
6
%

   
Three Months Ended
December 31,
   
Six Months Ended
December 31,
 
   
 
2015
   
 
2014
   
Net
Change
   
 
2015
   
 
2014
   
Net
Change
 
Product gross margin
   
67
%
   
67
%
   
-
     
67
%
   
66
%
   
1
%
Hosted and related services gross margin
   
54
%
   
40
%
   
14
%
   
53
%
   
39
%
   
14
%
Support and services gross margin
   
75
%
   
76
%
   
(1
%)
   
75
%
   
76
%
   
(1
%)
Total gross margin
   
64
%
   
61
%
   
3
%
   
64
%
   
60
%
   
4
%

The overall gross margin was 64% for the three months ended December 31, 2015 compared to 61% for the same period in the prior year.

The overall gross margin was 64% for the six months ended December 31, 2015 compared to 60% for the same period in the prior year.

Product gross margin

Product gross margins remained consistent at 67% for both the three months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014.

Product gross margins remained relatively consistent at 67% for the six months ended December 31, 2015 as compared to 66% in the same period in the prior year.
 
Hosted and related services gross margin

Hosted and related service gross margin increased to 54% in the three months ended December 31, 2015 as compared to 40% in the same period in the prior year. Hosted and related service gross margin increased to 53% in the six months ended December 31, 2015 as compared to 39% in the same period in the prior year. The increases from the prior periods were primarily due to operating efficiencies gained in our hosted deployment model as we have continued to expand our hosted revenue base while managing operational costs and also due to the release of $1.2 million and $2.0 million for the three and six months ended December 31, 2015, respectively, related to certain previously accrued surcharges as a result of favorable resolutions and reaching the statute of limitations in those jurisdictions.

Support and services gross margin

Support and services gross margins remained relatively consistent at 75% in the three and six months ended December 31, 2015 as compared to 76% in the same periods in the prior year.

Operating expenses

   
Three Months Ended
December 31,
   
Six Months Ended
December 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
   
Change $
   
Change %
   
2015
   
2014
   
Change $
   
Change %
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
                               
Research and development
 
$
13,793
   
$
13,272
   
$
521
     
4
%
 
$
27,630
   
$
26,933
   
$
697
     
3
%
Sales and marketing
   
30,272
     
29,301
     
971
     
3
%
   
61,115
     
58,317
     
2,798
     
5
%
General and administration
   
9,703
     
10,562
     
(859
)
   
(8
%)
   
19,818
     
20,553
     
(735
)
   
(4
%)
Settlements and defense fees
   
-
     
8,422
     
(8,422
)
   
(100
%)
   
-
     
8,422
     
(8,422
)
   
(100
%)
Acquisition-related costs
   
534
     
-
     
534
     
N/A
 
   
534
     
-
     
534
     
N/A
 

Research and development

Research and development expenses increased by $0.5 million, or 4%, for the three months ended December 31, 2015 as compared to the same period in the prior year. The increase in research and development expenses from the prior period was primarily due to an increase in the allocation of corporate expenses of $0.3 million primarily related to an increase in headcount of research and development personnel.

Research and development expenses increased by $0.7 million, or 3%, for the six months ended December 31, 2015 as compared to the same period in the prior year. The increase in research and development expenses from the prior period was primarily due to an increase in the allocation of corporate expenses of $0.6 million primarily related to an increase in headcount of research and development personnel.

Sales and marketing

Sales and marketing expenses increased by $1.0 million, or 3%, in the three months ended December 31, 2015 as compared to the same period in the prior year. This increase in sales and marketing expenses was due to an increase in marketing expenses of $1.0 million primarily due to partner commissions.

Sales and marketing expenses increased by $2.8 million, or 5%, in the six months ended December 31, 2015 as compared to the same period in the prior year. This increase in sales and marketing expenses was due to an increase in marketing expenses of $1.9 million primarily due to partner commissions as well as an increase in personnel related costs including benefits, bonus and commissions of $0.9 million primarily related to an increase in headcount .

General and administrative

General and administrative expenses decreased by $0.9 million, or 8%, in the three months ended December 31, 2015 as compared to the same period in the prior year. This decrease in general and administrative expenses was due to a decrease in professional services of $2.0 million partially offset by an increase in personnel related costs including benefits and bonus of $0.7 million primarily related to an increase in headcount.
 
General and administrative expenses decreased by $0.7 million, or 4%, in the six months ended December 31, 2015 as compared to the same period in the prior year. This decrease in general and administrative expenses was due to a decrease in professional services of $3.1 million partially offset by an increase in information technology related project costs of $1.3 million and an increase in personnel related costs including benefits and bonus of $1.0 million primarily related to an increase in headcount.

Settlements and defense fees

Settlements and defense fees of $8.4 million for the three and six months ended December 31, 2014 were comprised of $6.7 million related to a settlement on escrow claims related to the acquisition of M5 Networks, Inc. (“M5”), $1.1 million related to an Internal Revenue Service proposed adjustment for the 2008 through 2012 tax years and $0.6 million in professional fees incurred in connection with an unsolicited acquisition proposal . The $6.7 million related to a settlement on escrow claims was comprised of a $3.6 million impairment of the indemnification asset charge, $2.5 million for professional fee reimbursement and a $0.6 million modification accounting charge related to the change in fair value of foregone stock per the Agreement and Plan of Reorganization between M5 and the Company . There were no corresponding charges for the three and six months ended December 31, 2015.

Acquisition-related costs

 The acquisition-related costs of $0.5 million in the three and six months ended December 31, 2015 primarily consists of direct costs incurred by the Company related to the acquisition of M5 Networks Australia Pty Ltd (“M5 Australia”) and Corvisa LLC. There were no corresponding charges for the three and six months ended December 31, 2014.

Other income (expense), net

   
Three Months Ended
December 31,
   
Six Months Ended
December 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
   
Change $
   
Change %
   
2015
   
2014
   
Change $
   
Change %
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
                               
Interest expense
 
$
(115
)
 
$
(107
)
 
$
8
     
7
%
 
$
(238
)
 
$
(260
)
 
$
(22
)
   
(8
%)
Interest income and other (expense), net
   
(560
)
   
(343
)
   
217
     
63
%
   
(1,137
)
   
(556
)
   
581
     
104
%

Interest expense

Interest expense remained consistent at $0.1 million for both the three months ended December 31, 2015 and 2014.

Interest expense remained relatively consistent at $0.2 million for the six months ended December 31, 2015 as compared to $0.3 million for the same period in the prior year.

Interest income and other (expense), net

Interest income and other (expense), net remained relatively consistent at $0.6 million for the three months ended December 31, 2015 as compared to the $0.3 million for the same period in the prior year.

Interest income and other (expense), increased by $0.6 million in the six months ended December 31, 2015 as compared to the same period in the prior year. The increase in interest income and other (expense) from prior period was primarily due to amortization expenses.

Provision for income tax

   
Three Months Ended
December 31,
   
Six Months Ended
December 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014